What is DNS and how does it work?

Internet is used by every mobile and computer user, you also have access to many websites so far. But do you know what is DNS , what does it work and how does it work? DNS is a big contributor to any website. We are using this Domain Name System every day, but many people know about it. After reading this article, you too will know everything about it.

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As we all know that our computer does not understand our (humans) language, it only recognizes numbers. If we have to access a website on the Internet, then for that we also need numbers, which is called IP Address.

These numbers (IP addresses) are very difficult to remember. DNS is the domain name system used to remember them. This allows the site to be accessed by pointing the numbers to a domain.

Today we will talk about this DNS and will tell you in detail

What is DNS? 

The full form of DNS is Domain Name System, it is the Internet phonebook. This DNS translates domain names into IP addresses so that browsers can load Internet resources.

Just like we use PhoneBook to save numbers in the phone, the Domain Name System uses DNS to remember the IP addresses of websites.

If we define it in a line, it will be something like this.

With this help, users can easily access the site through the domain, as it is easier to remember the domain name than to remember the IP address.

Humans obtain information online through domain names such as xxxx.com or google.com. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.

Each domain name and device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address. Which shows on which server the content of the website is stored. That is, each device connected to the Internet has a specific IP address that other machines use to search the device.

DNS servers eliminate humans’ need to remember 193.165.1.1 (in IPv4), or more complex new alphanumeric IP addresses such as 2400: ca00: 2048: 1 :: c625: d7a4 (in IPv6).

There are a lot of websites in the world, so it is difficult to store all these information in a single DNS system and it is not even right from the point of view of security.

Therefore, just as the Internet is spread all over the world, so are the domain name servers. Where DNS information is stored.

All these servers are connected to each other. If information is not found in one DNS, then it automatically connects to other DNS.

Also, tell you that a domain has only one IP, it is not necessary. A domain name can also be associated with more than one IP address.

History of DNS (History of DNS )

Many years ago, when the size of the Internet was very small, there were very few websites and devices, whose IP address logo had to be remembered.

But as the size of this network increased and thousands of websites were created, it became very difficult to remember all these IP addresses.

Then in the 1980s, a person named Paul Mockapetris (who was a computer scientist) invented the domain name system to deal with this problem.

Under this invention, the website was given human readable names (some English names), which became easy for us humans to remember.

Although you can still access a website through its IP, but hardly you will remember the IP of a website, by the way… usually we do not even need it.

How does DNS work? (How DNS Works)

The process of DNS resolution converts a hostname (such as www.example.com) to a computer-friendly IP address (such as 195.167.1.1).

An IP address is assigned to each device on the Internet, and that address is required to find the appropriate Internet device.

For example, street addresses are used to locate a particular house. In the same way when a user wants to load a webpage, the user uses a web browser and machine-friendly addresses such as example.com.

To understand the process behind DNS resolution, it is important to learn about the various hardware components between which DNS queries are passed.

For web browsers, the DNS lookup is “behind the scenes” and requires no interaction with the user’s computer other than the initial request.

Let us explain to you according to points,

When we enter the address of a website ie domain name like example.com in the address bar of the browser, the first task of the browser is to find the IP address of that domain.

For this, the cache memory of the browser is checked first. If you have visited Google’s website before then its IP address is stored in your browser’s cache.

If the IP is found in the cache, it opens the website and if the IP is not stored in the browser cache, then the browser will request transfer to the operating system of your system such as Windows, Android or Mac.

Your operating system sends this request to the resolver ie your Internet Service Provider (ISP) which also has a cache, which can contain a record of IP address.

If IP is found here then this process ends and IP information is given to the client. Which makes the website accessible.

And even if IP is not found here, the request is transferred from the resolver to the root server.

Then the Root server further requests the top level domain server, which has information about the server of the top level domain such as .com, .net, .org etc.

Here the appropriate top level domain server is contacted according to the domain of the website. For example, a request will be sent to .com server for our website love4study.

After getting the information from the top level domain server, finally the information of the actual name server is taken from the authoritative name server and then the IP address of the domain is found from here.

When the IP address is found, then it is sent to the client, so that you can access the website through it.
Along with this, the IP is also stored in the cache by the browser so that this process will not have to be done again next time.

Here you have seen how long process is followed to find an IP address. But the good thing is that all these steps are completed in a few milliseconds.

Conclusion,

In this article, we have learned what DNS is, what is its history and how does it work? Hope you have liked this information.

Also, you must now have a better understanding of what this DNS is and how it works, if you have any question about it, then you can ask in the comment section below.

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